Denver Journal Old Testament Bibliography

Table of Contents

Introductory Commentaries

  1. Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation
  2. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible
  3. Concordia Commentary
  4. Expositor’s Bible Commentary
  5. Interpretation
  6. New American Commentary (NAC)
  7. New Beacon Bible Commentary
  8. New Covenant Commentary Series
  9. The NIV Application Commentary (NIVAC)
  10. New Interpreter’s Bible (NIB)
  11. The New Testament For Everyone
  12. The Old Testament For Everyone
  13. Pillar New Testament Commentary
  14. Sheffield Biblical Guides (NTG & OTG)
  15. The Story of God Bible Commentary (SOGBC)
  16. Teach the Text
  17. Two Horizons New Testament Commentary
  18. Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary
  19. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries
  20. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
  21. Understanding the Bible
  22. Westminster Bible Companion

Technical Commentaries

  1. Anchor Yale Bible Commentary (AYBC)
  2. Apollos Old Testament Commentary
  3. Baker Commentary on the OT Wisdom & Psalms
  4. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  5. Black’s New Testament Commentary
  6. Continental Commentary
  7. Eerdmans Critical Commentary
  8. Forms of Old Testament Literature
  9. Hermeneia
  10. Historical Commentary on the Old Testament
  11. International Critical Commentary
  12. International Exegetical Commentary on the OT
  13. International Theological Commentary
  14. New Cambridge Bible Commentary
  15. New International Commentary on the New Testament
  16. New International Commentary on the Old Testament
  17. New Testament in Context Commentaries (NTinC)
  18. New Testament Library (NTL)
  19. Old Testament Library (OTL)
  20. Paideia
  21. Reading the New Testament Commentary
  22. Readings: A New Biblical Commentary
  23. Sacra Pagina
  24. Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (SRC)
  25. Wisdom Commentary
  26. Word Biblical Commentary (WBC)
  27. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (ZECNT)
  28. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (ZECOT)

Specialized Commentaries

  1. The Africa Bible Commentary
  2. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture
  3. The Church’s Bible
  4. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (CNTOT)
  5. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament (EGGNT)
  6. Hellenistic Commentary to the New Testament
  7. Jewish Publication Society Bible Commentaries
  8. New International Greek Testament Commentary (NIGTC)
  9. New Testament Theology
  10. Old Testament Theology
  11. Reformation Commentary on Scripture

Commentary Guides

  1. Blomberg, Craig L., Bill Klein, David L. Mathewson, and Erin M. Heim, “New Testament Exegesis Bibliography – 2017,” Denver Journal 20 (2017). Cited 25 July 2017. Online: http://www.denverseminary.edu/resources/news-and-articles/new-testament-exegesis-bibliography-2017.
  2. Carson, D.A..  New Testament Commentary Survey. 7th ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013.
  3. Dallaire, Hélène, Knut Heim, and Richard S. Hess, “Annotated Old Testament Bibliography – 2017,” Denver Journal 20 (2017). Cited 25 July 2017. Online: http://www.denverseminary.edu/resources/news-and-articles/annotated-old-testament-bibliography-2017.
  4. Dyer, John. “Best Commentaries.” No pages. Cited 25 June 2017. Online: BestCommentaries.com.
  5. Evans, John F. A Guide to Biblical Commentaries and Reference Works. 10th ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
  6. Glynn, John. Commentary and Reference Survey: A Comprehensive Guide to Biblical and Theological Resources. 10th ed. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007.
  7. Longman, Tremper III. Old Testament Commentary Survey. 5th ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013.
  8. Rosscup, James E. Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works. Rev. and Enlarged 1993 and 2004. The Woodlands, TX: Kress.

Introductory Commentaries


B&H | Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation

“All volumes provide a discussion of introductory matters, including the historical setting and the literary structure of a given book of Scripture. Also included is an exegetical treatment of all the relevant passages in succinct commentary-style format. The biblical theology approach of the series will also inform and play a role in the commentary proper. The commentator permits a discussion between the commentary proper and the biblical theology that it reflects by a series of cross-references.

The major contribution of each volume, however, is a thorough discussion of the most important themes of the biblical book in relation to the canon as a whole. This format allows each contributor to ground Biblical Theology, as is proper, in an appropriate appraisal of the relevant historical and literary features of a particular book in Scripture while at the same time focusing on its major theological contribution to the entire Christian canon in the context of the larger salvation-historical metanarrative of Scripture. Within this overall format, there will be room for each individual contributor to explore the major themes of his or her particular corpus in the way he or she sees most appropriate for the material under consideration.

This format, in itself, would already be a valuable contribution to Biblical Theology. But there are other series that try to accomplish a survey of the Bible’s theology as well. What distinguishes the present series is its orientation toward Christian proclamation. This is the Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation commentary series! As a result, the ultimate purpose of this set of volumes is not exclusively, or even primarily, academic. Rather, we seek to relate Biblical Theology to our own lives and to the life of the church. Our desire is to equip those in Christian ministry who are called by God to preach and teach the precious truths of Scripture to their congregations, both in North America and in a global context.” –publisher description


Brazos | Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible

“Leading theologians read and interpret scripture for today’s church, providing guidance for reading the Bible under the rule of faith. Each volume in the Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible is designed to serve the church–through aid in preaching, teaching, study groups, and so forth–and demonstrate the continuing intellectual and practical viability of theological interpretation of the Bible.” –publisher description


Concordia Publishing House | Concordia Commentary

“The Concordia Commentary series is designed to enable pastors, professors, and teachers of the Word to proclaim the Gospel with greater insight, clarity, and faithfulness to the divine intent of the biblical text. This landmark work will cover all the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments, interpreting Scripture as a harmonious unity centered in the person and work of Jesus Christ. Every passage bears witness to the Good News that God has reconciled the world to himself through our Lord’s life, death, and resurrection. This scholarly commentary series fully affirms the divine inspiration, inerrancy, and authority of Scripture as it emphasizes “that which promotes Christ” in each pericope.”

As the publishing arm of The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, Concordia Publishing House is required to submit its materials to the Synod’s doctrinal review process.”-publisher description


Zondervan Press | The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Revised 5 Volume NT Set

Zondervan Press | The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Revised 8 Volume OT Set

“Based on the original twelve-volume set that has become a staple in college and seminary libraries and pastors’ studies worldwide, this revised edition of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary series once again gathers the most current evangelical scholarship and resources. Its fifty-six contributors, thirty of whom are new, represent the best in evangelical scholarship committed to the divine inspiration, complete trustworthiness, and full authority of the Bible. [One]  pack includes the 5 volumes covering the New Testament; [another pack includes the] 8 volumes covering the Old Testament.” -homepage


Westminster/John Knox | Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Preaching and Teaching, 43 Volumes

“Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching is a distinctive resource for those who interpret the Bible in the church. It bridges the gap between critical and expository commentaries and combines exciting biblical scholarship with illuminating textual expositions. Planned and written specifically for teaching and preaching needs, this critically acclaimed biblical commentary is a major contribution to scholarship and ministry.” –homepage description


B&H | New American Commentary (NAC)

“THE NEW AMERICAN COMMENTARY is for the minister or Bible student who wants to understand and expound the Scriptures.” –publisher description


Beacon Hill Press | New Beacon Bible Commentary

“The New Beacon Bible Commentary series is an engaging, indispensable reference tool that equips you to study and meditate on God’s Word. It offers insightful scholarship to help you unlock Scripture’s deeper truths and garner an awareness of the history, culture, and context attributed to each book studied. Readable, relevant, and academically thorough, it offers a new standard for understanding and interpreting the Bible in the twenty-first century.

EACH VOLUME FEATURES:

Completely new scholarship from notable experts in the Wesleyan theological tradition

Clear verse-by-verse explanations, which offer a contemporary, Wesleyan-based understanding derived from the text’s original language.

Helpful sidebars, which provide deeper insight into theological issues, word meanings, archeological connections, historical relevance, and cultural customs

Convenient introductory material, including information on authorship, date, history, audience, sociological/cultural issues, purpose, literary features, theological themes, and hermeneutical issues

Comprehensive annotation divided into three sections, which explore background elements behind the text; verse-by-verse details and meanings found in the text; significance, relevance, intertextuality, and application from the text.

An expanded bibliography for further study of historical elements, additional interpretations, and theological themes.” –Logos description


Wipf & Stock | New Covenant Commentary Series

“”The New Covenant Commentary Series (NCCS) is designed for ministers and students who require a commentary that interacts with the text and context of each New Testament book and pays specific attention to the impact of the text upon the faith and praxis of contemporary faith communities.

The NCCS has a number of distinguishing features. First, the contributors come from a diverse array of backgrounds in regards to their Christian denominations and countries of origin. Unlike many commentary series that tout themselves as international, the NCCS can truly boast of a genuinely international cast of contributors with authors drawn from every continent of the world (except Antarctica) including countries such as the United States, Puerto Rico, Australia, the United Kingdom, Kenya, India, Singapore, and Korea. We intend the NCCS to engage in the task of biblical interpretation and theological reflection from the perspective of the global church. Second, the volumes in this series are not verse-by-verse commentaries, but they focus on larger units of text in order to explicate and interpret the story in the text as opposed to some often atomistic approaches. Third, a further aim of these volumes is to provide an occasion for authors to reflect on how the New Testament impacts the life, faith, ministry, and witness of the New Covenant Community today. This occurs periodically under the heading of Fusing the Horizons and Forming the Community. Here authors provide windows into community formation (how the text shapes the mission and character of the believing community) and ministerial formation (how the text shapes the ministry of Christian leaders).” –publisher description


Zondervan Press | The NIV Application Commentary series

“Most Bible commentaries take us on a one-way trip from our world to the world of the Bible. But they leave us there, assuming that we can somehow make the return journey on our own. They focus on the original meaning of the passage but don’t discuss its contemporary application. The information they offer is valuable–but the job is only half done!

The NIV Application Commentary Series helps bring both halves of the interpretive task together. This unique, award-winning series shows readers how to bring an ancient message into our present-day context. It explains not only what the Bible meant but also how it speaks powerfully today.” –homepage description

Abingdon Press | The New Interpreter’s® Bible Commentary Ten Volume Set

The New Interpreter’s Bible Commentary offers critically sound biblical interpretations. Guided by scholars, pastors and laity representing diverse traditions and academic experience, this collection of commentary meets the needs of preachers, teachers, and all students of the Bible.” –homepage description


Westminster John Knox | The NT For Everyone, by N. T. Wright, 18 Volumes

In the New Testament for Everyone series, Wright continues his trademark of bringing the most up-to-date biblical scholarship to life with engaging writing, inspiring anecdotes, and faithful interpretation. These eighteen volumes are ideal for Bible study, personal devotion, and teaching.

Tom Wright has undertaken a tremendous task: to provide guides to all the books of the New Testament and to include in them his own translation of the entire text. Each short passage is followed by a highly readable discussion with background information, useful explanations and suggestions, and thoughts as to how the text can be relevant to our lives today. A glossary is included at the back of the book. The series is suitable for group study, personal study, or daily devotions.” –publisher description


Westminster John Knox | The OT For Everyone, by John Goldingay, 17 Volumes

“In this popular and ambitious series, John Goldingay covers Scripture from Genesis to Malachi and addresses the texts in such a way that even the most challenging passages are explained simply. Perfect for daily devotions, Sunday school preparation, or brief visits with the Bible, the Old Testament for Everyone series is an excellent resource for the modern reader.” –publisher description


Eerdmans | Pillar New Testament Commentary Series

“The Pillar New Testament Commentary, designed for serious readers of the Bible, seeks above all to make clear the meaning of the text of Scripture as we have it. Writers of the PNTC volumes interact with the most important, informed contemporary debate yet avoid undue technical detail. Their ideal is a blend of rigorous exegesis and exposition, scholarship and pastoral sensitivity, with an eye alert both to biblical theology and to the contemporary relevance of the Bible. Comprising fourteen volumes — 8062 total pages — this set brings together some of the best biblical scholarship of our time.” –publisher description


Bloomsbury/T&T Clark/Sheffield | Sheffield Biblical Guides

Bloomsbury OT Guides link | Bloomsbury NT Guides link

“This much sought-after and highly esteemed Bible study guide series is concise, comprehensive, manageable and affordable. The Sheffield / T&T Clark Bible Guides Collection (44 vols.) serves as an invaluable resource for students, preachers and Bible study leaders. Each of these books delivers to the reader a thorough and insightful introduction to a particular book of the Bible or the Apocrypha. All the books in the series were written by leading biblical scholars and the authors have drawn on their scholarly expertise as well as their experience as teachers of university and college students.” –Logos description


Zondervan | Story of God Bible Commentary  [OT & NT]

“The Story of God Bible Commentary is a new commentary for today’s world. It’s the first commentary series to explain and illuminate each passage of Scripture in light of the Bible’s grand story. This “story-centric” approach makes SGBC a fruitful resource for pastors, students, Sunday school teachers, and everyday readers.” –publisher description


Baker | Teach the Text Commentary

“This commentary is designed…to provide a ready reference for the exposition of the biblical text, giving easy access to information that a pastor needs to communicate the text effectively. To that end, the commentary is divided into carefully selected preaching units. Pastors and teachers engaged in weekly preparation thus know that they will be reading approximately the same amount of material on a week-by-week basis.

Each passage begins with a concise summary of the central message, or “Big Idea,” of the passage and a list of its main themes. This is followed by a more detailed interpretation of the text, including the literary context of the passage, historical background material, and interpretive insights. While drawing on the best of biblical scholarship, this material is clear, concise, and to the point. Technical material is kept to a minimum, with endnotes pointing the reader to more detailed discussion and additional resources.

A second major focus of this commentary is on the preaching and teaching process itself. Few commentaries today help the pastor/teacher move from the meaning of the text to its effective communication. Our goal is to bridge this gap. In addition to interpreting the text in the “Understanding the Text” section, each unit contains a “Teaching the Text” section and an “Illustrating the Text” section. The teaching section points to the key theological themes of the passage and ways to communicate these themes to today’s audiences. The illustration section provides ideas and examples for retaining the interest of hearers and connecting the message to daily life.” –publisher description



Eerdmans | Two Horizons New Testament Commentary

“Seeking to bridge the existing gap between biblical studies and systematic theology, this distinctive series offers section-by-section exegesis of the New Testament texts in close conversation with theological concerns. Written by respected scholars, the THNTC volumes aim to help pastors, teachers, and students engage in deliberately theological interpretation of Scripture” –publisher description


Eerdmans | Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary

“Two features distinguish The Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary series: theological exegesis and theological reflection.

Exegesis since the Reformation era and especially in the past two hundred years emphasized careful attention to philology, grammar, syntax, and concerns of a historical nature. More recently, commentary has expanded to include social-scientific, political, or canonical questions and more.

Without slighting the significance of those sorts of questions, scholars in The Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary locate their primary interests on theological readings of texts, past and present. The result is a paragraph-by-paragraph engagement with the text that is deliberately theological in focus.

Theological reflection in The Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary takes many forms, including locating each Old Testament book in relation to the whole of Scripture – asking what the biblical book contributes to biblical theology – and in conversation with constructive theology of today. How commentators engage in the work of theological reflection will differ from book to book, depending on their particular theological tradition and how they perceive the work of biblical theology and theological hermeneutics. This heterogeneity derives as well from the relative infancy of the project of theological interpretation of Scripture in modern times and from the challenge of grappling with a book’s message in its ancient context, in the canon of Scripture and history of interpretation, and for life in the admittedly diverse Western world at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

The Two Horizons Old Testament Commentary is written primarily for students, pastors, and other Christian leaders seeking to engage in theological interpretation of Scripture.” –publisher description


IVP Academic | Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (TNTC)

IVP Academic | Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries (TOTC)

“These Tyndale volumes are designed to help readers understand what the Bible actually says and what it means. The introduction to each volume gives a concise but thorough description of the authorship, date and historical background of the biblical book under consideration. The commentary itself examines the text section by section, drawing out its main themes. It also comments on individual verses and deals with problems of interpretation. The aim throughout is to get at the true meaning of the Bible and to make its message plain to readers today.” -publisher description


Baker | Understanding the Bible Commentary Series

Formerly called the “New International Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament/New Testament,” “Each volume in the Understanding the Bible Commentary Series breaks down the barriers between the ancient and modern worlds so that the power and meaning of the biblical texts become transparent to contemporary readers. They present a careful section-by-section exposition of the biblical books with key terms and phrases highlighted and all Hebrew transliterated. Notes at the close of each chapter provide additional textual and technical comments for those who want to dig deeper. A bibliography and Scripture and subject indexes are also included.” –publisher description


Westminster/John Knox | Westminster Bible Companion

“Books in the Westminster Bible Companion series assist laity in their study of the Bible as a guide to Christian faith and practice. Each volume explains the biblical book in its original historical context and explores its significance for faithful living today. These books are ideal for individual study and for Bible study classes and groups.” –publisher description


Technical Commentaries


Yale University Press | Anchor Yale Bible Commentary 92 Volumes (AYBC)

The Anchor Yale Bible is a project of international and interfaith scope in which Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish scholars from many countries contribute individual volumes. The project is not sponsored by any ecclesiastical organization and is not intended to reflect any particular theological doctrine.

The Anchor Yale Bible is committed to producing commentaries in the tradition established half a century ago by the founders of the series, William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman. It aims to present the best contemporary scholarship in a way that is accessible not only to scholars but also to the educated nonspecialist. Its approach is grounded in exact translation of the ancient languages and an appreciation of the historical and cultural context in which the biblical books were written supplemented by insights from modern methods, such as sociological and literary criticism.” –publisher description


InterVarsity | Apollos Old Testament Commentary

“The Apollos Old Testament Commentary (AOTC) aims to take with equal seriousness the divine and human aspects of Scripture. It expounds the books of the Old Testament in a scholarly manner accessible to non-experts, and it shows the relevance of the Old Testament to modern readers. Written by an international team of scholars and edited by David W. Baker and Gordon J. Wenham, these commentaries are intended to serve the needs of those who preach from the Old Testament, as well as scholars and all serious students of the Bible.

The AOTC series introduces and examines the books of the Old Testament, bridging the gap between the age in which they were written and the age in which we now read them. Each commentary begins with an Introduction which gives an overview of the issues of date, authorship, sources, and outlines the theology of the book, providing pointers towards its interpretation and contemporary application. An annotated Translation of the Hebrew text by the author forms the basis for the subsequent commentary.

Within the commentary, Form and Structure sections examine the context, rhetorical devices, and source and form-critical issues of each passage. Comment sections offer thorough, detailed exegesis of the historical and theological meaning of each passage, and Explanation sections offer a full exposition of the theological message within the framework of biblical theology and a commitment to the inspiration and authority of the Old Testament.” –publisher description


Baker | Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms

Baker | Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (BECNT)

“The Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (BECNT) series provides commentaries that blend scholarly depth with readability, exegetical detail with sensitivity to the whole, and attention to critical problems with theological awareness. All BECNT volumes feature the author’s detailed interaction with the Greek text and are specifically designed with students and pastors in mind. The user-friendly design includes shaded-text chapter introductions summarizing the key themes of each thought unit. Chapter outlines and overviews allow easy entry into the discussion and aid comprehension and recall. With extensive research and thoughtful chapter-by-chapter exegesis, these commentaries will be valued by students, professors, and pastors alike.” –BestCommentaries.com description


Continuum, et al. | Black’s New Testament Commentary (BNTC)

“Black’s New Testament Commentary presents a reliable and enlightening exposition of the New Testament for modern readers. Written by highly respected biblical scholars initially under the editorial direction of Dr. Henry Chadwick, and now of Morna D. Hooker, each commentary offers a paragraph-by-paragraph exposition based on the author’s own fresh translation of the biblical text. Since its appearance nearly thirty-five years ago, Black’s New Testament Commentary Series has been hailed by both scholars and pastors for its insightful interpretations and reliable commentary.” –Logos description


Fortress | Continental Commentary Series

“The  Continental Commentary Series, published by Fortress Press, makes leading critical biblical scholarship from German and French scholars available to the English-speaking world. This series combines scholarly excellence with academic rigor to benefit pastors, students, and scholars of both the Old and New Testament. From Claus Westermann’s 3-volume commentary on Genesis to the 3-volume commentary on the Psalms by Hans-Joachim Kraus, these volumes examine the text of Scripture in penetrating detail with a fresh translation, detailed commentary, and theological assessment.

Each book in the Continental Commentary Series includes comprehensive introductory material, including an explanation of narrative themes, an overview of the historical and cultural context, an analysis of textual traditions, and an evaluation of recent literature. The remainder of each volume is divided according to each pericope of Scripture, with each section containing a summary of secondary literature, a fresh translation of the text, an evaluation of the literary form and the setting in life, and a lengthy commentary. Each volume also contains indexes on Hebrew words, subjects, names and authors, and other material.” –Logos description



Eerdmans | Eerdmans Critical Commentary

The Eerdmans Critical Commentary offers the best of contemporary Old and New Testament scholarship, seeking to give modern readers clear insight into the biblical text, including its background, its interpretation, and its application.

Contributors to the ECC series are among the foremost authorities in biblical scholarship worldwide. Representing a broad range of confessional backgrounds, authors are charged to remain sensitive to the original meaning of the text and to bring alive its relevance for today. Each volume includes the author’s own translation, critical notes, and commentary on literary, historical, cultural, and theological aspects of the text.

Accessible to serious general readers and scholars alike, these commentaries reflect the contributions of recent textual, philological, literary, historical, and archaeological inquiry, benefiting as well from newer methodological approaches. ECC volumes are “critical” in terms of their detailed, systematic explanation of the biblical text. Although exposition is based on the original and cognate languages, English translations provide complete access to the discussion and interpretation of these primary sources. ” –publisher description


Eerdmans | Forms of Old Testament Literature

“The Forms of the Old Testament Literature (FOTL) is a series of volumes that seeks to present, according to a standard outline and methodology, a form-critical analysis of every book or unit of the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible). Fundamentally exegetical, each volume examines the structure, genre, setting, and intention of the biblical literature in question. The series also endeavors to study the history behind the form-critical discussion of the material, to bring consistency to the terminology for the genres and formulas of the biblical literature, and to expose the exegetical procedure in such a way as to enable students and pastors to engage in their own analysis and interpretation.” –publisher description


Fortress | Hermeneia

“Hermeneia is designed to be a critical and historical commentary to the Bible without arbitrary limits in size or scope. It utilizes the full range of philological and historical tools, including textual criticism (often slighted in modern commentaries), the methods of the history of tradition (including genre and prosodic analysis), and the history of religion.

Hermeneia is designed for the serious student of the Bible. It makes full use of ancient Semitic and classical languages; at the same time, English translations of all comparative materials—whether Greek, Latin, Canaanite, or Akkadian—are supplied alongside the citation of the source in its original language. Insofar as possible, the aim is to provide the student or scholar with full critical discussion of each problem of interpretation and with the primary data upon which the discussion is based.

Hermeneia is by design international and interconfessional in the selection of authors; its editorial boards were formed with this end in view. Occasionally the series has offered translations of distinguished commentaries which originally appeared in languages other than English. In time, new commentaries will replace older works in order to preserve the currency of the series. Commentaries are also assigned for important literary works in the categories of apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works relating to the Old and New Testaments, including some from the discoveries at Qumran and Nag Hammadi.

The editors of Hermeneia impose no systematic-theological perspective upon the series (directly, or indirectly by selection of authors). It is expected that authors will struggle to lay bare the ancient meaning of a biblical work or pericope. In this way, the text’s human relevance should become transparent, as is always the case in competent historical discourse. However, the series eschews for itself homiletical translation of the Bible.” –publisher description


Peeters | Historical Commentary on the Old Testament

“The Historical Commentary on the Old Testament is an international series of commentaries which devotes explicit attention to the history of interpretation of biblical tradition in all its stages, both within and without the Hebrew canon. As the term ‘Old Testament’ indicates, the commentary stands in the Christian exegetical tradition. The contributors are comprised of scholars from all over the world and from many different churches and denominations. The commentary is intended not only for Old Testament scholars, but also for ministers and other interested parties. The treatment of every pericope is preceded by a new translation and a section called ‘Essentials and Perspectives’ in which the author summarizes the results of the exegesis in non-technical language. The primacy here is assigned to the final stage of the text. The summary incites the user to consult the main body of the exegesis which is headed ‘Scholarly Exposition’. Here the approach is that of modern critical scholarship.” -ISD book distributor description

“For over 100 years, the International Critical Commentary series has held a special place among works on the Bible. It has sought to bring together all the relevant aids to exegesis-linguistic and textual no less than archaeological, historical, literary and theological-with a level of comprehension and quality of scholarship unmatched by any other series. No attempt has been made to secure a uniform theological or critical approach to the biblical text: contributors have been invited for their scholarly distinction, not for their adherence to any one school of thought.”


Kohlhammer | International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament

“The International Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament (IECOT) is designed to offer an international, ecumenical and contemporary interpretation of the Old Testament (including deutero-canonical books) to a broad audience of scholars, laypeople, and pastors. IECOT is international: it has editorial board members and authors from North America, Europe and Israel and all volumes will appear in both English and German. IECOT is ecumenical in bringing scholars of diverse Christian and Jewish perspectives into collaboration. Moreover, the series covers all of the books of the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament canons, including the Deutero-Canonical books of many Christian confessions. A main way that IECOT is contemporary is in the way it brings together two, often opposed perspectives, perspectives often described as “synchronic” and “diachronic.” By “synchronic” is understood a focus on a text at one particular stage of its formation (especially its final stage). By “diachronic” is meant the study of a text?s growth over time through incorporation of earlier traditions, sources, etc. In addition, IECOT volumes include other contemporary perspectives such as gender-criticism, social-history, and reception history.” –publisher description

T&T Clark | International Theological Commentary

“The T&T Clark International Theological Commentary (ITC) offers a verse by verse interpretation of the Bible that addresses its theological subject matter, gleaning the best from both the classical and modern commentary traditions and showing the doctrinal development of Scriptural truths.

This post is designed mainly to help students build an effective and robust bibliography for any research project they undertake. Although focused on New Testament works, it should also be useful for other readers who may wish to pursue a writing project of some kind.

Let us assume that you have been assigned the task of writing an exegetical paper on Galatians. Here is how you need to approach your bibliography:

Length

How long should a bibliography be? I am sure my students would like me to state a specific number–and they probably hope that number is a single digit! I’m not going to do that. A bibliography should be as long as necessary to demonstrate that you have investigated a subject thoroughly.

While the specific length of your bibliography will inevitably depend on the length of the assignment and the time you have available, in most cases careful research will require at least a double-digit number of sources.

Of course, there is no value in simply adding a list of books to the end of a paper if you have not engaged seriously with the content of many of them and have not even opened some of them.

Diversity

Good learners will listen to a wide range of voices, both those they expect to agree with and those they don’t. Do not restrict your bibliography to works with which you expect to agree. In fact, you may find that authors with whom you disagree strongly are most stimulating to your own thought, as they will require you to gather evidence and arguments that both show why you think a particular author is wrong and support the position you wish to take.

It is also helpful to include, wherever possible, the voices of both men and women, and of authors from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. One of my students added that there is value in considering scholarship from different periods of time. For example, the work of J. B. Lightfoot still repays careful attention. And the commentaries of John Calvin remain excellent examples of careful reading of the biblical text.

Types of material

Your bibliography should demonstrate serious research. Don’t rely on only one type of literature. There are several resources that may be helpful to you as you look for ideas. I strongly recommend that you visit the bibliographies (for both OT and NT) maintained by the Denver Journal. The NT bibliography is an excellent resource that highlights important literature in a range of different categories. Not only is this resource entirely free of charge, but it is updated regularly as new titles are published.

Also very useful, but inevitably somewhat dated as soon as they are published, are D. A. Carson’s New Testament Commentary Survey, and John F. Evans’s, A Guide to Biblical Commentaries and Reference Works. University students should, of course, consult their university library catalogue. If your university subscribes to the ATLA database, be sure to use that resource. Also useful are Google Scholar˛ Academia.edu, and Google Books, where you can sometimes read substantial portions of expensive academic volumes.

Ideally, your bibliography will include a good mix of the following resources:

Primary sources

Work that engages directly with primary sources will always be valued highly. It should go without saying that you will engage directly with the text of Galatians if you are writing an exegetical paper on Galatians. It is not normally necessary, however, to include Bible translations in your bibliography. You may choose to identify any translations used in a footnote or after the chapter and verse reference. If you make reference to other ancient texts, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, Rabbinic literature or texts from the Graeco-Roman world, you should include a reference to the edition you have used in the bibliography.

Language tools

While this is essential for students working with the Greek text of the NT, students working with the English text should still use tools that enable them to consider the features of the Greek text as accurately as possible. It is good to get into the habit of making reference to the standard Greek lexicon (‘BDAG‘). You should also consult, and make reference to, the recently-revised NIDNTTE, if possible, whenever you are discussing a particular Greek word. Greek students should also refer to standard grammatical works, such as BDF and Wallace.

New Testament Introductions

Single-volume introductions to the NT can provide useful discussion of general issues relating to a biblical document. Particularly strong are the works written by Brown, Carson and Moo, deSilva and Köstenberger et al. Don’t forget these important books as you develop your bibliography.

Dictionary articles

Dictionary articles can be an excellent means of getting a relatively brief orientation to the basic information and contours of discussion relating to a particular topic. The IVP Bible Dictionaries series is particularly important for biblical studies. The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionaryis a standard multi-volume dictionary that reflects mainstream scholarship.

Commentaries

The most important thing about your choice of commentaries is to ensure that you use several detailed ‘exegetical’ commentaries. Commentaries that focus on the history of interpretation, theological interpretation, or practical application all have their own valid role, but you should rely mainly on careful exegetical studies of the details of the biblical text.
The Denver Journalbibliography provides a list of the major series in English and good lists of commentaries of various levels of technicality. Some recent examples of significant commentaries on Galatians are those by Schreiner, Moo, Das, Oakes and de Boer.

Monographs

A ‘monograph’ is a detailed study of a specific topic. For example, if you are working on a study of the opening verses of Galatians 1, you might wish to consult Jeffrey A. D. Weima’s recent book entitled, Paul the Ancient Letter Writer. Have a look at this blog post, identifying five important recent monographs on Galatians.

Journal articles

Students often overlook journal articles, but they are a very important element of a well-developed bibliography. Journal articles will often provide detailed discussions of issues that receives only fleeting comment in a commentary. Recently published articles may well take account of more recent literature. University students will normally be able to access to journals through their university library. Those not connected to a university may well find journal subscriptions very expensive.

An alternative source of articles is the marvellous site, biblicalstudies.org.uk. Here you will find a wide range of articles, generally published a few years ago, which are available, with appropriate permission from copyright holders, free of charge.

Articles in books

Many articles are published in edited collections, such as conference proceedings or Festschriften (a German term used to refer to collections of essays presented to a senior scholar who reaches a notable birthday). A good example of such a book is the Festschrift for Richard Longenecker entitled, Gospel in Paul, which includes several essays on ‘gospel’ in Galatians. Also relevant is the collection of essays by James Dunn entitled, The New Perspective on Paul.

Summary

If a student gathers a good range of materials from most of these categories, that will form a good bibliography. Of course, the student must still make wise choices regarding the specific items of literature chosen. And then the student must use the sources effectively and critically! But that is a topic for another post.

I strongly advise students to consult their lecturers to discuss specific questions. Most lecturers are more than happy to talk about books and articles whenever they get a chance! I certainly am!


Dr. Alistair Wilson (PhD, Aberdeen) teaches New Testament and Greek at Highland Theological College, UHI (University of the Highlands and Islands) in Scotland. He has served as Editor of The Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology and New Testament Review Editor of Themelios. He is an Adjunct (‘Extraordinary’ in South African terminology) Professor of New Testament in the Research Unit for Reformed Theology, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. He is Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a member of the New Testament Society of South Africa, the Tyndale Fellowship for Biblical and Theological Research. He is also an occasional member of the Evangelical Theological Society (USA) and the Society of Biblical Literature. You can follow him on Twitter at @DrAIWilson.


This post was originally published on Alistair Wilson’s blog, These Things are Written, in February 2016.

Looking for more help with research? Check out the post by Andy Byers, Lecturer at Cranmer Hall, on How to do New Testament Research.

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