FEED Resource Recovery 2BackgroundThe FEED idea based on Compositing Technology was formed by a 28-year-old MBA student Shane Eten alongside his friend and co-partner Ryan he is passionate about being an entrepreneur for his business plan. At the point of this case, Shane needs to raise money to develop a prototype to and launch his ideas. Although he has gathered a lot of interest from potential investors, some of his advances are rejected due to lack of a prototype. He is interested in keeping ownership of the company as much as possible his own. He gained experience from his professors on how to sell an idea in the market to get potential investors.(FEEED Resource Recovery, n.d.)He joined various organizations, studying their business plans and proposals and how the business world worked acquitting him with the skills he needed in accounting and working with figures. He began the project in an attempt to reduce organization's waste material through disposal. The group, named Biospan looked into various factors such as anaerobic digestion, anaerobic composition, and Gasification of the waste products. The company would collect waste from restaurants, grocery stores and homes to feed to the digester to convert it into compost or biogas.Anaerobic digestion is a clean, safe and proven technology that is used in the decomposition of organic waste by the use of in an oxygenated environment. The feed system known as the R2, would utilize the anaerobic digestion to convert biodegradable waste into fuel for a distribution general unit. Due to its decentralized nature, you could place the R2 system at the back of the store alongside the organic waste dumpster. The R2 system is uniquely automated by the use of integration technology that would see to a pH balancing unit that optimizes the entire system. Also, the system is independently different from the others which include an integrated biogas generator unit, a gravity system that that reduces costs at the same time increases the efficiency.
Resource recovery is using wastes as feedstock for the production of value added compounds (energy, chemicals, materials...). Other uses can include making new products for resale using, for example, plastic, paper, aluminum, glass or metal. Some waste products can be used for composting (organic household waste, for example) or for generating energy. The point of resource recovery is to extract the maximum benefit from products and reduce the amount of waste generated. Resource recovery delays the need to resort to the use of virgin resources.
Resource recovery differs from the management of waste in that it uses life-cycle analysis (LCA) to come up with alternative uses that will reduce the volume of waste going to landfills. A number of studies on municipal solid waste (MSW) have indicated that reuse should be favoured over landfill disposal. Improvements to administration, source separation and collection should be followed by reuse and recycling of non-organic materials. Organic materials that undergo anaerobic digestion can be turned into energy, compost or fertilizer.
In the context of sanitation, the term "resource recovery" is used to denote sanitation systems that aim to recover and reuse the resources that are contained in wastewater and excreta (urine and feces). These include: nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), organic matter, energy and water. This concept is also referred to as ecological sanitation or productive sanitation.
Materials used as a source
Main article: Recycling
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of disposed materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.
The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboardcartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.
PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
The type of recycling material accepted varies by city and country. Each city and country have different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials.
Wastewater and excreta
Main articles: Reuse of excreta, Wastewater reuse, and Ecological sanitation
There are a number of valuable resources that can be recovered from wastewater, sewage sludge, fecal sludge and human excreta. These include water, energy, and fertilizing nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as micronutrients such as sulphur and organic matter. There is also increasing interest for recovering other raw materials from wastewater, such as bioplastics and metals (e.g. silver). Originally, wastewater systems were designed only to remove excreta and wastewater from urban areas. Water was used to flush away the waste, often discharging into nearby waterbodies. Since the 1970s, there has been increasing interest in treating the wastewater to protect the environment, and efforts focused primarily on cleaning the water at the end of the pipe. Since around the year 2003, the concepts of ecological sanitation and sustainable sanitation have emerged with the focus on recovering resources from wastewater.
The following resources can be recovered:
- Water: In many water-scarce areas there are increasing pressures to recover water from wastewater. In 2006, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), developed guidelines for safe use of wastewater. In addition, many national governments have their own regulations regarding the use of recovered water. Singapore for example aims to recover enough water from its wastewater systems to meet the water needs of half the city. They call this NEWater. Another related concept for wastewater reuse is sewer mining.
- Energy: The production of biogas from wastewater sludge is now common practice at wastewater treatment plants. In addition, a number for methods have been researched regarding use of wastewater sludge and excreta as fuel sources.
- Fertilizing nutrients: Human excreta contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other micronutrients that are needed for agricultural production. These can be recovered through chemical precipitation or stripping processes, or simply by use of the wastewater sludge. However, reuse of wastewater sludge poses risks due to high concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as heavy metals, environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants and other chemicals. Since the majority of fertilizing nutrients are found in excreta, it can be useful to separate the excreta fractions of wastewater (e.g. toilet waste) from the rest of the wastewater flows. This reduces the risk for undesirable compounds and reduces the volume that needs to be treated before applying recovered nutrients in agricultural production.
Other methods are also being developed for transforming wastewater into valuable products. Growing Black Soldier Flies in excreta or organic waste can produce fly larvae as a protein feed. Other researchers are harvesting fatty acids from wastewater to make bioplastics.
Main articles: Composting, Home composting, Anaerobic digestion, and Microbial fuel cell
Disposed materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The intention of biological processing is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
There is a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to small town scale batch digesters, industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see mechanical biological treatment). Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist.
Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been found to be in a number of LCA analysis studies to be more environmentally effective, than landfill, incineration or pyrolysis. The resulting biogas (methane) though must be used for cogeneration (electricity and heat preferably on or close to the site of production) and can be used with a little upgrading in gas combustion engines or turbines. With further upgrading to synthetic natural gas it can be injected into the natural gas network or further refined to hydrogen for use in stationary cogeneration fuel cells. Its use in fuel cells eliminates the pollution from products of combustion. There is a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to small town scale batch digesters, industrial-scale, enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see mechanical biological treatment). Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist.
In many countries, source-separated curbside collection is one method of resource recovery.
In Australia, every urban domestic household is provided with three bins: one for recycling; another for general waste; and another for garden materials, this bin is provided by the municipality if requested. To encourage recycling, municipalities provide large recycle bins, which are larger than general waste bins. Many American localities have dual-stream recycling, with paper collected in bags or boxes and all other materials in a recycling bin. In either case, the recovered materials are trucked to a materials recovery facility for further processing.
Municipal, commercial and industrial, construction and demolition debris is dumped at landfills and some is recycled. Household disposal materials are segregated: recyclables sorted and made into new products, and unusable material is dumped in landfill areas. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), the recycling rate is high and is "increasing, with 99% of households reporting that they had recycled or reused within the past year (2003 survey), up from 85% in 1992". In 2002–03 "30% of materials from municipalities, 45% from commercial and industrial generators and 57% from construction and demolition debris" was recycled. Energy is produced is part of resource recovery as well: some landfill gas is captured for fuel or electricity generation, although this is considered the last resort, as the point of resource recovery is avoidance of landfill disposal altogether.
Resource recovery is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year. One way to do this is by changing a company from a system of managing wastes to a resource recovery system (such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)
Education and awareness in the area of resource recovery is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and resource recovery programs. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, e.g., WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. Many supermarkets encourage customers to use their reverse vending machines to deposit used purchased containers and receive a refund from the recycling fees. Brands that manufacture such machines include Tomra and Envipco.
In 2010, CNBC aired the documentary Trash Inc: The Secret Life of Garbage about waste, what happens to it when it's "thrown away", and its impact on the world.
Extended producer responsibility
Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture.
- ^Dutch Association of Regional Water Authorities. 2013. Vision brochure: Wastewater management roadmap towards 2030.
- ^WHO (2006). WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater - Volume IV: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
- ^"Singapore's 'toilet to tap' concept". Deutsche Welle. 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
- ^"Production of Pellets and Electricity from Faecal Sludge"(PDF). SANDEC NEWS. 2015. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
- ^Larsen, Tove A.; Udert, Kai M.; Lienert, Judit (2013-02-01). Source Separation and Decentralization for Wastewater Management. IWA Publishing. ISBN 9781843393481.
- ^Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn. "Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) — From a hygiene aspect". Science of The Total Environment. 458-460: 312–318. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.033.
- ^"'Revolutionary' Tech Makes Plastic From Wastewater". Water Online. 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2017-11-27.
- ^Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Technologies
- ^Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Municipal Solid Waste Management in the State of Kuwait
- ^Television review: 'Trash Inc.', Susan Carpenter, Los Angeles Times, 29 September 2010